Publications & Patents

Business Publications and Citations

  • Bernard Leong, “Digital Transformation: The Future Post Office”, Mail and Express Review, Summer (May) 2017.
  • Bernard Leong, “The Future of Drone Delivery“, Infocomm & Media Development Authority of Singapore Impact Site. Citation Sources: Channel News Asia, OpenGov.
  • Bernard Leong, “Best Practices for Chief Digital Officers & Three Principles in Digital Transformation”, CXO Insights, Feb 2015.


Academic Publications

Biology and Bioinformatics

  • Xi Chen, Han Xu, Ping Yuan,  Fang Fang, Mikael Huss, Vinsensius B. Vega,  Eleanor Wong, Yuriy L. Orlov, Weiwei Zhang, Jianming Jiang, Yuin-Han Loh, Hock Chuan Yeo, Zhen Xuan Yeo, Vipin Narang, Kunde Ramamoorthy Govindarajan, Bernard Leong, Atif Shahab, Yijun Ruan, Guillaume Bourque, Wing-Kin Sung, Neil Clarke, Chia-Lin Wei, Huck-Hui Ng,Integration of external signaling pathways with the core transcriptional network through transcription factor colocalization hotspots in embryonic stem cells”, Cell 2008 Jun 13 ; 133(6): 1106-17.
  • Gulliaume Bourque, Bernard Leong, Vinsensius B Vega, Yi Ruan, C L Wei and Edison Liu, “Conservation and Transposon-mediated evolution of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Mammalian Genomes”, Genome Res. 2008 Nov;18(11):1752-62.
  • B K Goh, Bernard Leong, C L Kee, C H Lin, B Lim, Y L Lee and S H Tan, “Establishment of a Skin Toxicogenomics System to identify Potential Skin Toxicants in Pre-clinical Drug Trials”, Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 35(Suppl)(10):S6, 2006.
  • Jun Xu, Bhylahalli P. Srinivas, Shang Yew Tay , Alicia Mak , Xianwen Yu , Serene G. P. Lee , Henry Yang , Kunde R. Govindarajan , Bernard Leong, Guillaume Bourque, Sinnakarupan Mathavan and Sudipto Roy, “Genome-wide Expression Profiling in the Zebrafish Embryo Identifies Target Genes Regulated by Hedgehog Signaling During Vertebrate Development”, Genetics, Oct 2006;174(2):735-52.
  • Yuin-Han Loh, Qiang Wu, Joon-Lin Chew, Vinsensius B. Vega, Weiwei Zhang, Xi Chen, Guillaume Bourque, Joshy George, Bernard Leong, Jun Liu, Kee-Yew Wong, Ken W. Sung, Leonard Lipovich, Vladimir A. Kuznetsov, Paul Robson Lawrence W. Stanton, Chia-Lin Wei, Yijun Ruan, Bing Lim, Huck-Hui Ng, “The Oct4 and Nanog transcription network that regulates pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells”, Nature Genetics, 38(4):431-40. April 2006.
  • Thomas A. Down, Bernard Leong and Tim J. P. Hubbard, “A Machine Learning Strategy to Identify Exonic Candidate Binding Sites in Human Protein-coding Sequence”, BMC Bioinformatics, 7:419, Sep 2006.

Economics, Entrepreneurship and Public Policy

  • Bernard Leong, Alison Wee and Ho Yuen Ping, “Is an enterprise framework necessary for an entrepreneurial university? A comparison of entrepreneurial university technology start-ups in Singapore & Sweden“, Science and Public Policy, 35(9):647-656, Nov 2008.
  • Toke Aidt, Bernard Leong, Daniel Sgroi and William Saslaw, “Power Laws, Maximal Efficiency and the Turnover of Sports Managers”, Physica A, 370(2):697-703.
  • Bernard Leong, “Finding the Golden Path, Can Singapore be a Silicon Valley?” 6(3):62-63, Innovation Magazine, August 2006.


  • Abel Yang, William Saslaw, Phil Chan and Bernard Leong, “The robustness of the galaxy distribution function I: Effects of merging and evolution on the galaxy distribution“, published to the Proceedings of the Conference in Honour of Murray Gell-Mann’s 80th Birthday, eds. H. Fritzsch and K. K. Phua, pp 597-604, 2010, World Scientific, Singapore. Download from
  • Bernard Leong and William Saslaw, “Gravitation Binding, Virialization and the Peculiar Velocity Distribution of the Galaxies”, ApJ, 608:636-646, 2004.
  • Daniel Baumann, Bernard Leong and William Saslaw, “A Universe that Changes its Global Symmetry“, MNRAS, 345:552-560, 2003.
  • Bernard Leong, Anthony Challinor, Roy Maartens and Anthony Lasenby, “Braneworld Tensor Anisotropies in the CMB”, Phys. Rev. D66:104010, 2002.
  • Bernard Leong, Peter Dunsby, Anthony Challinor and Anthony Lasenby, “(1+3)-Covariant Dynamics of Scalar Perturbations in Brane Worlds”, Phys. Rev. D65:104012, 2002.

Ph.D Thesis

  • Bernard Leong, “Spin Torsion, Braneworlds and Changing Symmetry in the Universe”, gr-qc/0311016, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, Feb 2003.

Undergraduate Proceedings

  • Bernard Leong, “Numerical Computations in Satellite Orbits”, Proceedings of Undergraduate Science Research Programme, National University of Singapore, NUS Press, 1997.
  • Bernard Leong, “Atomic Force Microscopy in Biological Molecules”, Proceedings of Undergraduate Science Research Programme, National University of Singapore, NUS Press, 1998.